Not long ago I posted about Hedging—where we qualify what we say or use cautious language that sometimes is so cautious and qualified that it doesn’t really make a point. In this article Pat Thomson talks about using boosters—words that give a sense of authority and strength to what you are saying.
A problem statement articulates the motivation for your study. It answers the “so what?” question for readers. Just what is the problem you are looking into and why is it important? Articulating that helps lead to your purpose in the research and your research questions follow from that, either directly, or from a review of the literature prompted by your problem statement.
Drafting your problem statement is something you should do early in your research planning. Your problem statement may well be refined as you learn more, but establishing at least a draft one is very useful for orienting your research.
This presentation from the Abraham S Fischler School of Education, Nova Southeastern University gives more information about problem statements and their place in your research report.
The IMRAD writing structure refers to the standard structure for academic writing in papers, dissertations and theses: introduction-methods-results-(and)-discussion. It can be hard to know what goes in each section and how they should be written, but there are lots of good resources online to help you with this. The more you look at, the more you will get the idea to apply to your own work. Here is a great explanation written to help Biology students at Bates College.
What should go in your introduction? In this post Arjenne Louter, The Dutch PhD Coach, explains the three aspects you need to cover
Any piece of academic writing needs an introduction and a conclusion. In long documents – like a thesis or dissertation – you also need smaller introductions and conclusions in each section. What should your introduction and conclusion say? This short checklist has some really helpful points about introductions and conclusions.
Good beginnings and endings, London School of Economics, Teaching and Learning Centre